Articles Of Interest

Articles Of Interest

Use Technicians as Physician Assistants: Presenter Wendy Miers

What you’ll learn:

Learn how to leverage technicians and assistants to work at the top of their licenses and skillsets:
• Identify the type of appointments technicians and assistants will see
• Understand practice act guidelines on which duties staff may perform
• How to charge for technician appointments and show value to clients
• Create scheduling guidelines for technician appointments
• What hours to offer technician appointments and how to set staff schedules

Technicians as Physician Assistants and Multiply Your Revenue

YouTube video:  Link

Wendy S. Myers, CVJ, President, Communication Solutions for Veterinarians Inc., 720-344-2347,,,,, @wendysmyers
Meet your consultant

Wendy S. Myers, CVJ, has been sharing her expertise in client service and communication
skills with teams for 22 years as owner of Communication Solutions for Veterinarians. She
teaches teams to become confident communicators, so more pet owners say yes to
medical care and practices grow revenue. Wendy shares her knowledge through
conferences, online courses, and monthly live webinars. She is a certified veterinary
journalist and author of five books. Wendy was a partner in an AAHA-accredited specialty
and emergency hospital, which was sold to a corporate group. Her passion is to help practices like yours thrive and grow through effective communication skills.

Brought to you by an educational grant:

What you’ll learn:
Learn how to leverage technicians and assistants to work at the top of their licenses and skillsets:
• Identify the type of appointments technicians and assistants will see
• Understand practice act guidelines on which duties staff may perform
• How to charge for technician appointments and show value to clients
• Create scheduling guidelines for technician appointments
• What hours to offer technician appointments and how to set staff schedules
Lessons from physicians on leveraging medical support staff
Despite signing bonuses, student-loan payoff assistance, shortened workweeks, and enticing salaries,
private and corporate practice owners are grappling to hire associate veterinarians. Unemployment for
veterinarians is 0.7%.

1 Veterinary economist James Lloyd, DVM, PhD, found there are 1,400 open
veterinary positions with no one to fill them, or about 1.7 positions per candidate, according to his study,
The Current U.S. Employment Market for Veterinarians.2 The U.S. Labor Department forecasts a “faster
than average” 17% growth in jobs for veterinarians between 2020 and 2030.

Just as physician assistants are filling the disparity in human healthcare, veterinarians should consider
the same strategy. Established in the mid-1960s, physician assistants are licensed to help deliver primary
medical care under the supervision of a physician.4 In 2020, there was shortage of 20,400 primary care
physicians, with physician assistants and nurse practitioners helping to lessen the gap.5 The 2011 Great
American Physician Survey Data found 52% of physicians employ physician assistants in their practices.6
Full-time physician assistants see an average of 76 patients per week and earn 40% to 60% of a
physician’s salary yet generate revenue per patient similar to that of a physician.7
Here’s how physician assistants help physicians increase their bottom lines:
Allows for efficient patient scheduling. The doctor and physician assistant work in separate exam
rooms at the same time. This allows the practice to see more patients per day. Physician assistants have


© 2022 Communication Solutions for Veterinarians Inc. All rights reserved. •

the clinical expertise to handle most acute and chronic cases, freeing up overscheduled physicians to
treat complex cases and critically ill patients.
A certified physician assistant contributes $231,000 in revenue with an average salary of $84,000,
according to a 2008 study by the Medical Group Management Association. Based on these averages, the
physician assistant can boost the practice’s bottom line by $30,000 or more in primary care.
Expand office hours. A physician assistant is supervised by a physician but can provide patient care and
write prescriptions without the physician being present. If a doctor is on vacation or attending a medical
conference, the physician assistant may continue to see appointments and generate revenue for the
practice. The physician assistant also may work different hours, expanding availability for patients and
providing same-day walk-in care.
Increases procedure and case-management time for doctors. While a physician assistant sees
patients, the doctor can spend more time in surgery, attend to hospitalized patients, spend more time on
consultations, and provide more follow-up for case management.
Provides medical record and management support. The physician assistant can oversee other
personnel to free up the physician to provide patient care instead of employee management. Getting help
with medical record keeping also saves the doctor time.
Identify the type of appointments technicians and assistants will see
With more than 1,000 hospitals in the United States and Canada, Banfield Pet Hospitals initiated
technician appointments to streamline patient care and utilize technicians at the top of their skillsets. The
corporate group completed more than 30,000 credentialed technician appointments in 2019.8
Leveraging support staff can have huge financial payoff. A survey found for every credentialed technician
that a practice employed, the hospital generated $161,493 more in gross revenue.9
Evaluate employees’ education, experience, and skillsets. The National Association of Veterinary
Technicians in America defines a veterinary technician as a graduate from a two-year AVMA accredited
college program.10 Most states require a technician to pass a credentialing exam. On-the-job trained or
non-credentialed employees are classified as veterinary assistants.
Review last month’s appointment schedule and look for types of appointments that could be shifted to
technicians or assistants. You may find 10% to 20% of appointments could be reallocated to medical
support staff. If exams are not due, technicians and assistants could administer vaccines, perform lab
tests (i.e., drug-monitoring tests for pets taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), conduct follow-up
laser therapy treatments, and teach clients how to administer subcutaneous fluids and other home-care
lessons. Veterinarians focus on diagnosing, prescribing medications, and performing surgery.
Assign doctor-technician teams. This helps doctors be more productive and efficient. Pair two
technicians with each veterinarian. This medical team of three works in collaboration the entire day and
prevents “steal the technician” game among doctors.
You will assign technicians and assistants to one of three roles daily:
1. Outpatient technicians/assistants (exams)
2. Inpatient technicians/assistants (treatment area, laboratory, pharmacy, technician appointments)
3. Surgical and dental technicians/assistants (morning procedures, afternoon technician
appointments or outpatient exams)
Define a standard of care for the frequency of veterinary exams. Your doctors will need to set a
protocol on the frequency of exams for patients to have technicians or assistants deliver specific services.


© 2022 Communication Solutions for Veterinarians Inc. All rights reserved. •

For example, you might require a doctor exam within one year to schedule nursing appointments or to
refill medications. In multi-doctor practices, set a “hospital standard of care” rather than individual doctors
making their own rules.
Confirm there is a veterinarian-client-patient relationship (VCPR). Existing clients may schedule
nursing appointments while new clients will need appointments with veterinarians first. The AVMA defines
a VCPR with five criteria:
1. The veterinarian has assumed the responsibility for making clinical judgments regarding the
health of the patient and the client has agreed to follow the veterinarians' instructions.
2. The veterinarian has sufficient knowledge of the patient to initiate at least a general or preliminary
diagnosis of the medical condition of the patient. This means that the veterinarian is personally
acquainted with the keeping and care of the patient by virtue of a timely examination of the
patient by the veterinarian, or medically appropriate and timely visits by the veterinarian to the
operation where the patient is managed.
3. The veterinarian is readily available for follow-up evaluation or has arranged for the following:
veterinary emergency coverage, and continuing care and treatment.
4. The veterinarian provides oversight of treatment, compliance, and outcome.
5. Patient records are maintained.
Download a poster of the VCPR to display in your clinic at
If clients have a valid VCPR and the patient has received an exam within the timeline for your standard of
care, here are four appointment types that technicians or assistants could potentially see:
1) Preventive appointments
Let’s say a dog needs his second Lyme or Leptospirosis vaccine a few weeks after the first dose.
Schedule a technician rather than a veterinarian appointment. Download my history questions for
veterinary nurses at
2) Diagnostic appointments
Technicians and assistants can collect samples and perform laboratory tests for drug monitoring, early
detection screens, preanesthetic testing prior to surgery or dentistry, blood pressure checks, glucose
curves, and much more.
3) Treatment appointments
This list is huge: Change bandages, administer subcutaneous fluids, perform laser therapy sessions, trim
nails, clean or flush ears, and much more.
4) Instructional appointments
Some puppy and kitten appointments could be delegated to technicians who will give vaccines and focus
on educational visits about nutrition, behavior, parasite protection, potty or litterbox training, and other

preventive topics. Technicians and assistants could provide coaching for clients with pets on weight-
management programs to guide them through feeding and exercise choices. You also could teach clients

about home care from giving insulin injections to subcutaneous fluids.
Let clients book doctor and technician appointments through your app and website
The average healthcare scheduling call takes 8 minutes.11 If one CSR schedules 30 appointments a day,
that’s four hours of talk time. In a three-doctor practice, scheduling calls can consume 12 hours of talk
time for CSRs to book 90 appointments. There’s a more efficient way. Lead clients to book doctor and
technician appointments through your app or website.
Research shows 70% of consumers prefer to schedule appointments via text/app.

12 Send appointment
reminders through the app and by email with links to app and online scheduling. If half of clients choose
online or app booking, you could save six hours of talk time for 45 calls.


© 2022 Communication Solutions for Veterinarians Inc. All rights reserved. •
Get the app: Boehringer Ingelheim’s partnership between PetPro Connect and TeleVet
Boehringer Ingelheim has a strategic collaboration with TeleVet to deliver innovative technology and
services that will make it easier for practices to provide the best patient care while alleviating stress on
their teams. This collaboration will bring together the benefits of PetPro Connect and TeleVet’s leading
technology to increase efficiency in practice management while enabling veterinarians to seamlessly
engage with pet owners.
This collaboration will bring together two innovative platforms to form the best of both, including:
1. Appointment scheduling and confirmations
2. Reminders
3. Client and staff messaging
4. Medication refills
5. Shareable medical history (2.0)
6. Telemedicine
7. Loyalty (2.0)
8. Payments
9. Website widget
10. Forms
11. Workflow automations
12. Curbside and hospital check-in
You will manage client communications through a cloud-based vet portal. Data syncs every 1 to 3
minutes with your practice-management software. Your dashboard shows arriving responses, which also
are sent to your clinic’s email. Staff may use the messaging platform to send and receive messages,
photographs, and videos, and to manage incoming appointment and prescription refill requests. A
messaging dashboard also records all previous messages with a quick and easy way to write-back
directly into your practice-management software. The platform is compatible with AVImark, ImproMed,
IDEXX Cornerstone, IDEXX Neo, ezyVet, and eVetPractice. If you want to learn more, schedule a demo
Understand your practice act guidelines on which duties staff may perform
Consult your state’s guidelines on technician duties and whether veterinary supervision must be direct or
indirect (
See if the practice act specifies whether you may charge fees for technician and assistant appointments
or only those with a licensed technician.
Depending on state guidelines, licensed veterinary technicians may perform duties in four categories:
1) Primary patient care and pharmacy: Administer medications, give injections, dispense medication,
educate clients, administer controlled substances, take patients’ vital signs, and restrain animals.
2) Surgical support: Perform dental treatments, suture cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues, assist
during surgery, catheterization, prepare surgical site, remove sutures, drains, or staples; administer
oxygen therapy, endotracheal intubation, monitor vital signs of anesthetized patients, induce anesthesia,
perform dental extractions, and perform local nerve blocks.
3) Patient care and treatments: Enemas, electrocardiography, apply bandages, flush ears, laser
therapy, fluid aspiration, application of splints and casts, suture skin lacerations (after veterinarian has
examined the wound before and after suturing), resuscitative procedures, application of appropriate
wound dressings and external supportive treatment in severe wound and burn cases, administer
chemotherapy, and humane euthanasia.


© 2022 Communication Solutions for Veterinarians Inc. All rights reserved. •

4) Diagnostics: Laboratory sample collection, run tests, diagnostic imaging (i.e., x-rays, ultrasound), and
How to charge for technician appointments and show value to clients
Why you should charge for technician appointments
Having clients pay for technician appointments makes sense because:
• Personnel is your practice’s top expense, and credentialed technicians earn higher wages than
• You’ll utilize technicians like physician assistants (I guarantee that your physician will charge you
for a physician assistant’s time and expertise).
• Just like physician assistants or nurse practitioners in human medicine, technicians will get
patients’ vital signs, ask brief history questions, update medical records, and deliver care.
• You’re offering valuable medical services and can serve clients faster (yes, pet owners will pay
for convenience).
• You’re letting technicians work at the top of their license, improving job satisfaction and employee
To help clients understand the difference between a veterinarian and technician exam, choose different
names for the service. Use the term “exam” for services that veterinarians provide and “health
assessment” for appointments with technicians. The term “health assessment” applies in the human
nursing profession.13
A health assessment performed by a technician or assistant includes three services:
1) Get patient’s vital signs (i.e., temperature, pulse, respiration, weight)
2) Ask history questions
3) Update medical record
Your team should define which staff appointment types will need health assessments. Here’s an example:
Yes: Perform and charge a health assessment
• Change bandages
• Clean ears
• Anal gland expressions
• Administer subcutaneous fluids
• Laser therapy after initial session
• Booster vaccines
• Weight checks
• Suture removal
No: Health assessment not necessary
• Nail trim
• Collect urine
• Blood draws for lab tests
• Intestinal parasite screen
• Microchipping
What to charge for technician appointments
You can price technician appointments based on a percentage of the doctor’s exam fee or calculate a
per-minute rate based on technicians’ average hourly wage.
Option 1: Percentage of doctor’s exam. Your exam fee is $60. Charge half the doctor’s rate if a
technician provides the health assessment or $30. Bill a third of the doctor’s rate or $20 if an assistant
delivers services.


© 2022 Communication Solutions for Veterinarians Inc. All rights reserved. •

Option 2: Create a per-minute rate based on technicians’ average hourly wage. The 2021 average
hourly pay for a technician was $17.72, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.14 Veterinary
assistants average $14.32 per hour.15 If staff costs are 20% of revenue, a technician needs to generate
$88.60 per hour in income. When calculating staff costs, include technicians’ benefits of CE allowance,
uniform reimbursement, health insurance, worker’s compensation, and other perks.
Here's the formula: Take the average labor cost per hour ($17.72) and divide it by 20% or .20. The result
is $88.60. To maintain an 80% gross margin, you need a labor sales price of $88.60.
Divide $88.60 income per hour by 60 minutes for a rate of $1.48 per minute for technician time. Use a
similar calculation to determine assistant appointment fees.
Rather than the tedious task of setting a stopwatch every time a technician sees an appointment, set fees
in blocks of 10, 20, 30, and 40 minutes with a minimum amount charged. For example, a 10-minute
technician appointment is $14.80. If the task only takes 5 minutes, still charge the 10-minute technician
fee because it’s the minimum amount and starting point for fees.
Here are examples of technician appointment fees based on blocks of time:
Length of technician appointment Health assessment fee
10 minutes $14.80
20 minutes $29.60
30 minutes $44.40
40 minutes $59.20
Host a staff meeting before implementing fees so you may explain the “why” behind the charge to
employees, and they may answer clients’ fee questions with confidence.
List employees’ names on receipts. Just as you list the doctor’s name on client receipts, include the
name of the technician or assistant who delivered care on the invoice. This creates value for professional
fees and personalizes the visit because pet owners know exactly who provided care. Use staff ID codes
in your practice-management software that have an invoice item description. For example, a client’s
receipt would say “Your veterinarian today was Dr. Smith” and “Your veterinary nurse today was Sue.”
Besides your hospital logo and contact information, the receipt should list the clinic’s email, number to
text, and practice app. These details tell clients how to reach your practice for ongoing communication.
Create scheduling guidelines for technician appointments (includes guidelines to get you started)
Develop scheduling guidelines for technician appointments. During a staff meeting, distribute guidelines
so everyone knows which appointment types will be deferred to technicians and assistants (see “Sample
Guidelines for Technician Appointments”). Everyone must follow the scheduling guidelines. Imagine four
cooks making soup, and no one is using the same recipe—disaster!
Save a PDF of appointment guidelines on every workstation desktop or use software templates based on
time and reason for visit. Put a technician column in your schedule just as you have columns for doctor
appointments. Designate which inpatient or surgical technician(s) will handle appointments each day. If
no technician appointments are booked, employees continue their treatment or surgical duties.


© 2022 Communication Solutions for Veterinarians Inc. All rights reserved. •

Sample Guidelines for Technician Appointments
Length of exam Type of appointment
10 minutes Anal gland expressions

Blood draws for drug monitoring, heartworm/tick screening, preanesthetic testing
Feline leukemia/FIV test
Intestinal parasite screen
Level 1 nail trims (cooperative patients)
Suture removal
Booster vaccines that don’t require a doctor’s exam (i.e., Bordetella, Lyme,
Weight checks for pets on weight-management programs

20 minutes Change bandages
Clean ears
Level 2 nail trim (Patient requires two or more nurses/assistants)
Administer subcutaneous fluids
Collect urine
Laser therapy after initial session

30 minutes Bird grooming

Scheduled follow-up radiographs

What hours to offer technician appointments and how to set staff schedules
Set hours for technician appointments. Based on your staffing levels, you may not be able to offer
walk-in technician appointments. I advise practice owners and managers to set hours when technician
appointments are offered, avoiding the chaos of walk-in technician appointments.
Imagine that you’re a surgical technician prepping this morning’s patients and three clients walk in for nail
trims. If you step away for 30 minutes to do three nail trims, surgery will start late (and you will likely
infuriate the doctor). If inpatient or surgical technicians will handle these appointments, offer appointments
after surgical procedures are done. For example, have technician appointments between 1:30 to 3:00
p.m. and 5:30 to 7:00 p.m. Survey clients about their preferences for technician appointment times, but
most pet owners will want to visit late afternoon (after school) and early evening (after work). Some
practices see three to four hours of technician appointments daily. These visits multiply revenue, free up
doctor time, and increase employee satisfaction because they’re practicing at the top of their licenses or
Truly leveraging technicians may cause you rethink your doctor vacancy. If staff see appropriate
appointments, you might just need a part-time rather than full-time doctor, or you might be able to hire two
technicians instead of a veterinarian.
Which goals will you implement from today’s training?
1. __________________________________________________________________________________
2. __________________________________________________________________________________
3. __________________________________________________________________________________
Helpful resources Link
Academy of Veterinary Dental Technicians
VTS (Dentistry)

Creating a 5-Star Veterinary Office: 6 Courses

National Association of Veterinary Technicians
Course: Career Paths: A guide to implementing
job levels


© 2022 Communication Solutions for Veterinarians Inc. All rights reserved. •
Facilitator’s Guide: Use Technicians as
Physician Assistants and Multiply Your Revenue
Choose a facilitator to lead your team’s discussion. Create plans to implement goals you learned in this
training program. Consult your state’s guidelines on technician duties and whether veterinary supervision

must be direct or indirect (

1. Which type of appointments could be shifted to medical support staff?
Technicians: _________________________________________________________________________
Assistants: __________________________________________________________________________
2. Which areas of responsibility will you assign to technicians daily?
3. What hours will you offer technician/assistant appointments?


© 2022 Communication Solutions for Veterinarians Inc. All rights reserved. •
References for Use Technicians as Physician Assistants and Multiply Your Revenue:
1 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2021. Available at: Accessed April 18, 2022. 2 Reimer K. Study: Is there a veterinarian shortage? Yes. Could we fix it immediately? Yes. Published

Sept. 18, 2019. Available at:
it-immediately-yes. Accessed Jan. 10, 2020. 3 US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational Outlook Handbook: Veterinarians. Available at: Accessed April 17, 2022. 4 Cawley J. Physician Assistants and Their Role in Primary Care. AMA Journal of Ethics. May 2012. Available at: Accessed
Jan. 2, 2020. 5 Projecting the Supply and Demand for Primary Care Practitioners Through 2020. Health Resources & Services
Administration. Available at: Accessed Jan. 3,
2020. 6 Cutler E. Can Physician Assistants Really Increase the Bottom Line? Goldin Peiser & Peiser (CPAs and Strategic
Advisors). Available at:
Accessed March 9, 2020. 7 Ten Ways Certified Pas Improve Quality, Reduce Costs. Managed Healthcare Executive. Published Aug. 20, 2015.

Available at:
reduce-costs. Accessed March 9, 2020. 8 Banfield to Offer Technician Appointments. Veterinary Practice News. Published <date>, 2019. Available at: Accessed Jan. 3, 2020. 9 Rose R, Mikita D. Leveraging Your Team to its Max. Veterinary Practice News. Published March 4, 2019. Available
at: Accessed Jan. 3, 2020. 10 NAVTA FAQs. Available at: Accessed Jan. 6, 2020. 11 Insight Driven Health: Why First Impressions Matter, Accenture, May 2013. Available at:
Providers-Scheduling.pdf. Accessed Jan. 20, 2021. 12 Park, A. 70% of consumers prefer to schedule appointments via text: 5 tips for safe, effective patient texting.

Published May 4, 2020. Available at:
prefer-to-schedule-appointments-via-text-5-tips-for-safe-effective-patient-texting.html. Accessed May 19, 2020. 13 Guide to Good Nursing Practice Health Assessment. Available at: Accessed Jan. 6, 2020. 14 Occupational Outlook Handbook. Veterinary Technologists and Technicians. 2020 median pay. U.S. Bureau of
Labor Statistics. Available at:
Accessed Jan. 4, 2022. 15 Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2021. Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers. U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Available at: Accessed

Posted March 23, 2020

COVID-19 and NJ Veterinary Practices

NJ Mandates PPE and Anesthesia Equipment Inventory, Suspends Elective Surgeries

March 23, 2020, 4:30 pm

NJ Governor Phil Murphy has signed Executive Order No. 109 requiring any business or non-hospital health care facility, including but not limited to dental facilities, construction facilities, research facilities, office-based healthcare or veterinary practices, and institutions of higher learning, in possession of PPE, ventilators, respirators, or anesthesia machines that are not required for the provision of critical health care services to undertake an inventory of such supplies and send that information to the State by no later than 5 pm Friday, March 27, 2020. The Office of Emergency Management (OEM) will establish a process by which entities subject to this provision can submit this information.

NJVMA will post details on OEM’s inventory submission process as soon as a process is in place.

Executive Order 109 also mandates the suspension of all elective surgeries and invasive procedures performed on adults that are scheduled to take place after 5 p.m. on March 27. The order applies to all medical and dental operations that can be delayed without undue risk to the current or future health of the patient, as determined by the patient’s physician or dentist. While veterinarians are not mentioned in name in this respect, the NJVMA strongly encourages all NJ veterinarians to suspend elective surgeries, non-emergency procedures, and well visits in order to limit exposure risk and conserve needed personal protective equipment.

Executive Order 109 is intended to reduce the burden on NJ’s health care system and protect frontline medical responders given the foreseen dramatic shortfall in personal protective equipment.

We will continue to provide updates to our members as they become available. Members are encouraged to reach out to the NJVMA office, or email us at with any questions or concerns.

To download this posting click here.

As COVID-19 continues to impact our community, NJVMA has compiled suggestions to help veterinary practices protect their teams, communicate with clients, and continue to serve the public.
1. The AVMA’s position is that veterinary hospitals are essential businesses and, as such, should not be subjected to mandated business shutdowns. That said, you should follow guidelines issued from your local public health authority.
2. If you close your office, we suggest the following ways to serve your clients:
• Have information about the closest emergency clinic on your voicemail, business entrances, and website.
• Send an email notification of the closure to all clients and include information about the closest emergency clinic.
3. If you keep your office open, we suggest the following ways to serve your clients:
• Frequently disinfect high-touch surfaces.
• Use no-touch trash receptacles.
• Place hand sanitizer throughout your clinic; allow clients to use sinks to wash their hands if no sanitizer is available.
• Consider postponing elective surgical procedures in order to preserve and free up treatment for critical patients.
• Avoid close contact with people who are ill.
• Wash hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
• Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth.
• Stay home if you are sick. If you get sick at work, go home immediately.
• Practice self-isolation if you are experiencing COVID-19 symptoms:
• Maintain “social distancing” by:
o Obtaining histories using paper or online forms, or on the phone, or through email prior to appointments.
o Asking clients to wait in their cars until an exam room is available.
o Having staff meet clients and their pets at the door and taking them directly to an exam room.
o Providing check-out in the exam room, curbside, or consider taking payments on the phone or online.
o If clients must be in the waiting room, ask them to maintain a distance of at least 6’ while waiting to be served.
4. Based on information from AVMA, there is no evidence that pets can contract or carry COVID-19. Review the AVMA resources here.
750 Route 202, Suite 200 | Bridgewater, NJ 08807
(P) 908-281-0918 (F) 908-450-1286 (E)
The NJVMA agrees with the AVMA position that telemedicine is a useful adjunct for providing care to patients that already have a physically-established VCPR.
New Jersey Veterinarians may look at the state’s proposed telemedicine rules which, although not adopted yet, have been approved for adoption by the state Board. Veterinarians should comply with the specifics in the unadopted regulations, but generally, veterinarians should determine if they can provide services through telemedicine to the same standard of care as they would if those services were provided in person. If they cannot do so in their professional judgment, they should not provide services through telemedicine.
NJVMA Veterinarians interested in providing this service should review the telemedicine rules here.
Additional Resources
For updated, veterinary-focused information and resources, visit AVMA's dedicated COVID-19 webpage.
The AVMA continues to gather information about veterinary drug and other medical supply needs related to the outbreak. They ask that veterinarians, practices/practice groups, and veterinary distributors with information about any shortages please email AVMA at Please include as much information as possible about the product and its manufacturer/distributor.
Please note: the staff at NJVMA headquarters is adhering to all state requirements related to operating a business in a state of emergency. Among other measures, we have limited all non-essential business travel, are encouraging work from home, and are limiting visitors to our offices. Our business continuity plan enables us to deliver services regardless of staff’s location, so please feel free to conduct business with us as usual.
If there is any support NJVMA can provide, please contact NJVMA at

Posted March 21, 2020

Employees waiver letter can be downloaded here.

Posted March 2020:

CDC site for download of printable posters for your offices by clicking here.



Updated as of 3:00 p.m. Central Time, Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Below are answers to some questions we have received about Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by
the virus SARS-CoV-2. The AVMA has additional information and resources available at This is a
rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.
Q: Hong Kong’s Agriculture, Fisheries, and Conservation Department (AFCD) has indicated that a pet dog whose owner
had contracted COVID-19 had been tested for SARS-CoV-2 and that multiple tests over several days’ time had come
back “weak positive.” Do you have more information, and should we be worried for our pets or for ourselves?

A: The ACFD first collected samples from the pet dog, reportedly a 17-year-old Pomeranian, on February 26 and detected
low levels of SARS-CoV-2 material in samples from its nasal and oral cavities on February 27. The ACFD repeated
the test on February 28 and March 2 with continued “weak positive” results (nasal and oral sample, nasal sample,
respectively). “Weak positive” suggests a small quantity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the samples. It doesn’t distinguish
whether the samples contain intact viruses, which are infectious, or only fragments of the RNA.
Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) testing was conducted by the laboratories of the
AFCD and the School of Public Health of the University of Hong Kong. The latter is an accredited reference laboratory
for the WHO for the testing of SARS-CoV-2. The RT PCR test is sensitive, specific, and does not cross-react with other
coronaviruses of dogs or cats. Testing from both laboratories yielded the same results.
Experts from the School of Public Health of the University of Hong Kong, the College of Veterinary Medicine and
Life Sciences of the City University of Hong Kong, and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) believe the
consistency and persistence of the results suggest the pet dog may have a low-level of infection with the virus. While
officials have said this may be a case of human-to-animal transmission, this is still speculative and further testing is
being conducted.
This pet dog is one of two pet dogs currently under quarantine in separate rooms in a facility at the Hong Kong Port of
Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge; the second pet dog has had negative results of tests for the virus.
The pet dogs are being cared for and neither has shown any signs of being ill with COVID-19. Furthermore, infectious
disease experts and multiple international and domestic human and animal health organizations agree there is no
evidence at this point to indicate that pets can spread COVID-19 to other animals, including people.
Q: Can SARS-CoV-2 infect pets?
A: We do not have a clear answer to this at this time. Currently, there is no evidence that pets can become sick. Infectious
disease experts, as well as the CDC, OIE, and WHO indicate there is no evidence to suggest that pet dogs or cats can
be a source of infection with SARS-CoV-2, including spreading COVID-19 to people. More investigation is underway
and as we learn more, we will update you.
However, because animals can spread other diseases to people and people can also spread diseases to animals, it’s a
good idea to always wash your hands before and after interacting with animals.
Q: If I am ill with COVID-19 are there special precautions I should take to prevent spreading disease, including when
caring for my pet?

A: If you are sick with COVID-19 you need to be careful to avoid transmitting it to other people. Applying some commonsense
measures can help prevent that from happening. Stay at home except to get medical care and call ahead before
visiting your doctor. Minimize your contact with other people, including separating yourself from other members of
your household who are not ill; using a different bathroom, if available; and wearing a facemask when you are around
other people or pets and before you enter a healthcare provider’s office. Wash your hands often, especially before
touching your face, and use hand sanitizer. Use a tissue if you need to cough or sneeze and dispose of that tissue in
the trash. When coughing or sneezing, do so into your elbow or sleeve rather than directly at another person.
Out of an abundance of caution, the AVMA recommends you take the same common-sense approach when
interacting with your pets or other animals in your home, including service animals. You should tell your physician and
public health official that you have a pet or other animal in your home. Although there have not been reports of pets
or other animals becoming sick with COVID-19, it is still recommended that people sick with COVID-19 limit contact
with animals until more information is known about the virus. So, if you are ill with COVID-19, have another member of
your household take care of walking, feeding, and playing with your pet. If you have a service animal or you must care
for your pet, then wear a facemask; don’t share food, kiss, or hug them; and wash your hands before and after any
contact with your pet or service animal. You should not share dishes, drinking glasses, cups, eating utensils, towels, or
bedding with other people or pets in your home. While we are recommending these as good practices, it is important
to remember there is currently no evidence that pets can spread COVID-19 to other animals, including people.
Q: What should I do to prepare for my pet’s care in the event I do become ill?
Identify another person in your household who is willing and able to care for your pet in your home should you
contract COVID-19. Make sure you have an emergency kit prepared, with at least two weeks’ worth of your pet’s food
and any needed medications. Usually we think about emergency kits like this in terms of what might be needed for an
evacuation, but it’s also good to have one prepared in the case of quarantine or self-isolation when you cannot leave
your home.
Q: My pet or service animal needs to go to the veterinarian – what should I do?
If you are not ill with COVID-19 or another communicable disease (e.g., cold, flu), call your veterinarian to make an
appointment for your pet or service animal as you normally would.
If you are sick with COVID-19 or another communicable disease, you should stay at home, minimizing contact with
other people, until you are well. Accordingly, if this is a non-urgent appointment that needs to be scheduled for your
pet or service animal (e.g., annual wellness examination, routine vaccination, elective surgery), you should wait to
schedule that appointment until your physician and your public health official believe you no longer present a risk of
transmitting your infection to other people you may encounter during such a visit, including owners of pets or other
animals and veterinary clinic staff.
If you are sick with COVID-19, and you believe your pet or service animal is ill, please seek assistance from your
veterinarian and public health official to determine how to best ensure your pet or service animal can be appropriately
cared for while minimizing risks of transmitting COVID-19 to other people.
Q: What should I do if my pet or service animal becomes ill after being around someone who has been sick with

A: Talk with the public health official working with the person who is ill with COVID-19. Your public health official can then
consult with a public health veterinarian who, in turn, can provide assistance to your veterinarian to ensure your pet or
service animal is appropriately evaluated.
If the state public health veterinarian recommends that you take your pet or service animal to your veterinarian for an
examination, please call your veterinarian in advance to let them know that you are bringing in a sick animal that has
been exposed to someone with COVID-19. Advance notice will support the veterinary clinic/hospital in preparing for
the proper admittance of that animal, including the preparation of an isolation area as needed. Do not take the animal
to a veterinary clinic until you have consulted with the public health official and your veterinarian.
Q: What precautions should be taken for animals that have recently been imported from high-risk areas?
A: Any animals imported into the United States will need to meet CDC and USDA requirements for entering the United
States. At this time there is no evidence that animals other than the bat source of SARS-CoV-2 can spread COVID-19.
As with any animal introduced into a new environment, recently imported animals should be observed daily for signs
of illness. If an animal becomes ill, the animal should be examined by a veterinarian. Call your veterinarian before
bringing the animal into the clinic and let them know that the animal was imported from an area identified as high-risk
for COVID-19.
Q: Is testing for SARS-CoV-2 available for animals in the United States?
A: No clinical testing is available as of today (3/11/2020) in the United States, but tests and testing capacity are being
developed. It is possible that authorization may need to be obtained from a public health or state veterinarian prior
to submission of samples. More information on test availability and requirements for submission is expected to be
available shortly.
It’s important to remember that, while SARS-CoV-2 is suspected to have emerged from bats, there is currently limited
evidence that other animals, including pets, can be infected with SARS-CoV-2. There is no evidence to suggest that
pets can spread COVID-19 to other people or other pets.
Q: How do I best protect myself and my veterinary team from infection with COVID-19?
A: Stay informed about the local COVID-19 situation. Know where to turn for reliable, up-to-date information in your local
community. Monitor the CDC’s COVID-19 website and your state and local health department websites.
Because there is currently no vaccine available to prevent COVID-19, the best way to prevent illness is to avoid
exposure to the virus. Taking typical preventive action is key: team members should avoid close contact with other
people who are ill; avoid touching their eyes, nose, and mouth; cover their coughs or sneezes with a tissue, then
throw the tissue in the trash; wash their hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after
blowing their nose, coughing, or sneezing, going to the bathroom, and before eating (if soap and water are not readily
available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol); and stay at home when they are sick.
Surfaces in the veterinary clinic/hospital that are touched frequently, such as workstations, keyboards, doorknobs,
countertops, and stethoscopes, should be cleaned often and wiped down by employees with disposable wipes
between cleanings. Provide no-touch disposal receptacles. Place hand sanitizers in multiple locations, including in
exam rooms, offices, and conference rooms to encourage hand hygiene.
Veterinary healthcare team members who have symptoms of acute respiratory illness should stay at home and should
not return to work until they are free of fever (100.4 F or lower, using an oral thermometer), signs of a fever, and any
other symptoms for at least 24 hours without the use of fever-reducing or other symptom-altering medicine (e.g.,
cough suppressants). Communicate about COVID-19 with your team. Flexible sick leave policies are important and
team members should be made aware of these policies. Team members who appear to have symptoms of acute
respiratory illness upon arrival at work or who become sick during the day should be separated from other team
members and sent home immediately.
If a team member is confirmed to have COVID-19, the veterinary practice owner should inform other team members of
their possible exposure to COVID-19, but maintain confidentiality as required by law. Team members who are exposed
to another employee with confirmed COVID-19 should contact their physician or local health department to determine
how best to proceed.
Q: The animal of a client who is ill with COVID-19 needs to be seen urgently, how do I proceed?
A: No one with active COVID-19 infection should be visiting your practice because doing so may expose the members of
your veterinary healthcare team, as well as other clients, to the disease. When a veterinarian or public health professional
is notified that a pet, or other animal, resides in the home of a person with COVID-19 and needs care, they should notify
the state public health veterinarian or another designated animal health official for direction as to how to proceed.
State public health veterinarians who have been contacted about pets or other animals potentially exposed to COVID-19
can consult with the CDC One Health Team 24/7 by calling CDC’s Emergency Operations Center at 770-488-7100.
Although there is currently no evidence that animals other than the potential bat source of SARS-CoV-2 play a role in
the epidemiology of COVID-19, good disease prevention protocols should be maintained by the entire veterinary team
during patient interactions, including strict hand-washing.
COVID-19 aside, it is always a good idea to take steps to prevent the spread of disease in your clinic/hospital by
following the guidance provided in the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians’ Compendium of
Veterinary Standard Precautions for Zoonotic Disease Prevention in Veterinary Personnel.
Q: Is there a test I can use to check my patients for SARS-CoV-2?
A: No clinical testing is available as of today (3/11/2020) in the United States, but tests and testing capacity are being
developed. It is possible that authorization may need to be obtained from a public health or state veterinarian prior
to submission of samples. More information on test availability and requirements for submission is expected to be
available shortly.
It’s important to remember that, while SARS-CoV-2 is suspected to have emerged from bats, there is currently limited
evidence that other animals, including pets, can be infected with SARS-CoV-2. There is no evidence to suggest that
pets can spread COVID-19 to other people or other pets.

Information gathered and published by AVMA.

Posted Feb 2020:

New Payroll regulations effective May 20, 2020 for 10 or more employee's.

What you need to know

Effective May 19, 2020, New Jersey Senate Bill 1791 will expand the information required on employee pay statements. Each pay period, all public and private employers with 10 or more employees must provide employees with a statement of earnings that includes the following:

(1) deductions from the employee’s wages for each pay period in which deductions are made;
(2) the employee's gross wages;
(3) the employee's net wages;
(4) the employee's rate of pay; and
(5) if relevant to the wage calculation, the number of hours worked by the employee during the pay period
New Jersey employers may provide the statement electronically, unless the employee requests that the statement be provided in a paper format. For more on this click here.

Posted January 2020:

Opioid FAQs for Veterinarians 

What is the opioid CE requirement for license renewal?
The State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners requires that the number of credits of continuing
veterinary education required of each person licensed as a veterinarian, as a condition of biennial
license renewal, include at least one credit of educational programs or topics concerning prescription
opioid drugs, including the risks and signs of opioid abuse, addiction, and diversion. The NJVMA is
looking into providing a webinar that will fulfill the requirement.
(N.J.A.C. 45:16-9.4c. Continuing veterinary education)
What information much be included when writing a prescription for opioids?
The following information must be recorded on each prescription provided to owners to treat their
1) The name of the animal, (its species), and the owner’s last name
2) The animal’s date of birth (if unknown, list January 1 of the estimated year of birth)
3) The owner’s name
4) The owner’s address
By including owner information on pet prescriptions, physicians doing look-ups on the NJPMP can see
what kind of medications patients have been obtaining in their pet’s name as well as their own.
How do I report suspected opioid abuse?
Veterinarians are encouraged to access the NJPMP’s Suspicious Activity Report (“SAR”) to report
individuals they suspect may be seeking CDS for misuse, abuse, or diversion.The Suspicious ActivityReport (“SAR”) portal available to health practitioners and members of the public on the NJPMP
website, permits users to quickly alert authorities about when they believe doctors are overprescribing
controlled medications; individuals or pharmacists are filling forged or stolen prescriptions, or patients
are “doctor shopping” to obtain multiple prescriptions. Information contained in the reports will be
investigated for possible administrative or criminal enforcement action.
Where can I find an online course that meets the CE requirement?
NJ CARES, in partnership with Rowan School of Osteopathic Medicine, is now offering a series of onehour courses for healthcare professionals providing standardized, evidence-based education on the Role
of Pharmacists in Addressing New Jersey’s Opioid Crisis and Using the New Jersey Prescription
Monitoring Program (NJ PMP), and professional judgment to halt abuse and diversion; counseling
patients on the proper use/disposal of opioids. The cost of each course is $7. Please note, because the
course is designed for human healthcare providers there will be some information that does not apply
to veterinarians. For example, veterinarians are not currently required to use the NJPMP.
Click Here for More Information
Where can I learn more?
More information can be found in the press release New Jersey Attorney General and Division ofConsumer Affairs Announce Stricter Guidelines for Veterinary Prescriptions to Prevent Pet PainMedications from Being Used to Feed Opioid Addictions.

Information provided by NJVMA

390 Amwell Road, Suite 403 | Hillsborough, NJ 08844-1247
(P) 908-281-0918 (F) 908-450-1286 (E)

Posted  Jan 15, 2020:

Minimum Wage Increase January 2020

Many States are raising their minimum wage in 2020. Beginning January 1 st, over 21 states will be raising their minimum wage. More states, cities, and counties are lined up to increase minimum wage throughout 2020.

What's New?
Changes began in 2012, with employees demanding raises to align with the cost of living. Now, with unemployment down, companies are seeing they must offer better salaries to attract qualifying candidates. Federal minimum wage has not increased in nearly a decade from $7.25/hour. Last year, the US House of Representatives passed the Raise the Wage Act of 2019, which would raise federal minimum wage to $15/hour by 2025, however the bill has not been reviewed by Senate as of yet. Below are the states that will see increased minimum wages in January 2020: Alaska - $10.19 (3%) Arizona - $12 (9.1%) Arkansas - $10 (8.1%) California - $13 (8.3%) Colorado - $12 (8.1%) Florida - $8.56 (1.2%) Illinois - $9.25 (12%) Maine - $12 (9.1%) Maryland - $11 (8.9%) Massachusetts - $12.75 (6.3%) Michigan - $9.65 (2.1%) Minnesota - $10 (1.4%) Missouri - $9.45 (9.9%) Montana - $8.65 (1.8%) New Jersey - $11 (10%) New Mexico - $9 (20%) New York - $11.80 (6.3%) Ohio - $8.70 (1.8%) South Dakota - $9.30 (2.2%) Vermont - $10.96 (1.7%) Washington - $13.50 (12.5%)
For more information click here:

Posted 01/10/2020

My Veterinary Job Board posted a video on how to prepare for an interview. Click on show more to open the video.

SHOW MORE for YouTube video.

Posted June 20, 2019

Changes in Labor Laws 

1.      NJ Minimum Wage Increase (effective July 1, 2019) –


·       NJ minimum wage is increasing to $10/hour starting 7/1/19.  This is the start of a phased increase to $15/hour by 2024

·       Our technology is set to alert you if you add a new hire under this rate as of 7/1/19, but we will need to ensure your existing staff are earning this rate or more by the effective date.


2.       NJ Family Leave Expansion (parts of this law start June 30, 2019) – this law expands the benefits under the NJ Family Leave Act (NJ FLA) and NJ Family Leave Insurance (NJ FLI).




NJ FLA changes:

·       12 weeks of job protection now must be offered by employers with 30 or more employees. Eligible employees may use the protected leave to care for a sick family member or bond with a newly born/adopted child.

·       Increase from 42 intermittent days to 56 days of intermittent leave (eff. 7/1/20)

·       Expands definition of family member to include anyone deemed equivalent to a covered family member

·       Includes time taken for an employee’s domestic or sexual violence matter, or to care for a family member with a domestic/sexual violence matter


NJ FLI Changes:

·       Doubles the amount of time an employee can collect NJ FLI wage benefits from 6 weeks to 12 weeks (eff. 7/1/20)

·       Increases the wage benefit from 66 2/3 % to 85% of average weekly wages (eff. 7/1/20)

·       Increases the weekly max for the wage benefit from $650/week to approximately $860/week (eff. 7/1/20)

·       1 week waiting period for wage benefits is waived (eff. 7/1/19)

·       Can no longer require an employee to use Paid Time Off before collecting FLI (eff. Immediately)


3.      NJ Pre-Tax Commuter Benefits (effective March 1, 2019)


·       Requires employers with 20 or more employees to offer pre-tax commuter benefits.  This allows the employee to have pre-tax money deducted from their pay to use for commuting expenses, per IRS regulations. 

·       Required to be offered, even if your business does not have employees that pay for parking or use mass transit

·       Pre-tax money can be used for 2 different “buckets” of expenses –

o   Qualified Parking (parking near place of work or near mass transit) – up to $265/month

o   Transit Passes (bus, rail, ferry) or Vanpooling (6+ passengers) – up to $265/month

·       Employees covered under CBA are excluded

·       More specific rules and regulations are still pending


4.      NJ Ban on Non-Disclosure Provisions (effective March 18, 2019)


·       Non-disclosure provisions in employment contracts and settlement agreements are no longer enforceable

·       Also, can no longer include any waiver of rights to a “substantive or procedural right or remedy” (e.g. requiring an employee to waive a jury trial or arbitration)

·       Employer and employee can still agree to such terms but run the risk of retaliation claims if the employee was coerced to agree, or treated unfairly for declining to agree

·       Non-compete and Non-disclosure agreements that aim to protect proprietary information are still permissible

·       Effective for agreements entered into, modified or renewed on or after 3/18/19, but advisable to have all existing agreements reviewed by legal counsel


5.      DOL Overtime Rule Change (planned to be effective January 1, 2020)


·       Increases the salary threshold requirement for White-Collar Exemptions from $23,660/year to $35,308/year

·       Up to 10% of the salary can be incentive pay (this means you could have an employee that falls shortly under the threshold and you can make a “catch-up payment” to get them to $35,308)

·       Highly Compensated Employee salary threshold increases from $100,000 to $147,414

·       Duties tests remains the same

·       This is still in a “proposed” status but is expected to pass.  It is advised to start looking at your Exempt Employees now to make sure they will meet the new salary threshold.  Once passed, there may not be much time before 1/1/20 to get in compliance.

·       NY, CA and ME have state-specific White-Collar Exemption criteria.  Whichever rule is more beneficial to the employee wins.


6.      NJ Medical and Recreational Marijuana Update

·       Recreational Marijuana did not pass in NJ.  It will be on the voter ballot in November 2020.

·       Bills have been proposed to expand the Medical Marijuana laws in NJ and reduce criminality of current and prior marijuana-related charges

·       Companies must decide how they will handle medical marijuana card-holder status and drug-testing.  Must balance the requirement to accommodate disabilities vs. securing a safe work environment

Information was supplied by ADP Resource

Posted Dec 20, 2018

New Jersey Veterinary Medical Association

IMPORTANT INFORMATION ON SALES TAX Dear NJVMA Member: NJVMA Executive Director, Rick Alampi, and NJVMA's legislative agent met on December 13, 2018 with senior officials from the New Jersey Department of the Treasury regarding sales tax on injectable medications and other consumable items.

There is no change in the Division of Taxation's position that injections are a professional service and are exempt from sales tax.
 However, their auditors are seeing more invoices that show separate charges for injectable medications or products used in treatment or surgery. Some examples include antibiotic injections, pre-anesthetic drugs, pain medications and vaccinations. The auditors have taken the position that these are subject to sales tax, regardless of if that charge is for medications or surgical products that were used in the performance of a professional service, and regardless of if the veterinarian paid sales tax upon purchase of the items. They stated that sales tax can be nuanced, and much depends on the presentation of the invoice. They gave several examples, as follows:

Example #1 - Vaccination If a veterinarian's invoice states:

 Rabies vaccine -  $10
Administration of rabies vaccine - $20

 Then the Division of Taxation views the $10 charge for the rabies vaccine as a separate charge for medication that is taxable to the consumer. If a veterinarian's invoice states:
Administration of rabies vaccine - $30
Rabies vaccine - $0

 Then the Division of Taxation views the $30 charge for administration of rabies vaccine as exempt from sales tax. If your software bundles professional services with products so your invoice reads as follows, then the charge is exempt from sales tax to the consumer.
 Administration of rabies vaccine - $30

Their guidance document, ANJ-12, which can be viewed here, clearly states under Consumable Items, that "Veterinarians must charge Sales Tax on retail sales of consumable items if those items are sold in the regular course of business, as if by pharmacists or retailers, or if the veterinarian separately states a charge to the customer as opposed to merely listing the items used in the performance of medical services."
 There is a wide variety of practice management software in use by veterinary practices, and many programs will break out consumable items for the purposes of inventory control.

However, the NJVMA recommends that should your software separately list items, such as medications, IV solutions, surgical products, etc., you should assign a zero value to those items on the invoice to avoid potential sales tax liability. 

Veterinarians & New Jersey Sales Tax

This bulletin explains the New Jersey Sales and Use Tax rules for veterinarians: when they must collect
Sales Tax from their customers on products and services and when they must pay Sales or Use Tax on
items they purchase. Veterinarians perform both taxable and nontaxable services. Medical services
performed on animals are exempt from New Jersey Sales Tax. Services that are not performed as a
necessary part of medical services are taxable

Effective January 1, 2018, the New Jersey Sales and Use Tax rate decreases from 6.875% to 6.625%. The
tax rate was reduced from 7% to 6.875% in 2017. Additional information about the Sales and Use Tax
rate change is available online.
Exempt Services

The following services to animals are examples of nontaxable services:
• Dental cleaning
• Diagnostic tests
• Disposal of animals through cremation or
• Euthanasia of animals
• Examinations
• Hospitalization
• Medical treatment
• Surgery
• Therapeutic treatment such as medicinal
baths using prescription drugs administered
by a veterinarian

Taxable Services:
Separately stated charges for the following services to animals are taxable unless provided because of
the animal’s disease, injury, or other medical need. (If these services are simply included at no extra
charge as part of the veterinarian’s professional service, the professional service fee remains
• Boarding
• Washing and shampooing
• Grooming
• Clipping and styling fur
• Trimming nails or claws



Veterinarians are required to pay tax on their purchases of all items of office equipment, surgical
equipment, and all other machinery, apparatus, or equipment used in connection with the services they

Purchases for Resale:

Veterinarians may issue a valid New Jersey Resale Certificate (Form ST-3) or the Streamlined Sales
and Use Tax Agreement Certificate of Exemption (Form ST-SST) and not pay Sales Tax on
purchases of items that are intended for resale. Such items include insect sprays, powders, and collars.
Veterinarians must collect and remit Sales Tax on the retail sales of those items to customers.

Consumable Items

Transactions are taxable when veterinarians purchase consumable items such as disposable supplies,
drugs, medicines, vitamins, and mineral supplements for use in the treatment of animals. The
veterinarian must pay tax when making such purchases because he/she is considered the retail
purchaser of the items he uses in performing professional services for clients. Veterinarians must
charge Sales Tax on retail sales of consumable items if those items are sold in the regular course of
business, as if by pharmacists or retailers, or if the veterinarian separately states a charge to the
customer as opposed to merely listing the items used in the performance of medical services. For
example, if a bill says, “Vet services, including follow-up visit and medication – $100,” the bill is not
subject to tax. However, if the bill separately states a charge for drugs, the medication is taxable. 

Boarding Charges:

In general, charges for the boarding of animals other than for medical reasons are subject to Sales Tax.
Veterinarians purchasing food and medicine strictly for the care of boarded animals may issue a valid
resale certificate to the seller in lieu of paying tax. Veterinarians must charge their customers Sales Tax
on the food and medicine, as well as on the charges for boarding. (For an exception, see Farmers
Charges for boarding horses are taxable. Charges for rental of a stall in which to keep a horse also are
taxable, regardless of whether boarding services also are provided.
When an animal stays with the veterinarian for medical examination, treatment, or convalescence, the
charges for this hospital stay are part of the veterinarian’s charges for professional medical services.
These charges are not treated as taxable boarding charges.


Agricultural enterprises (enterprises that produce agricultural products for sale) are exempt from Sales
Tax when they purchase feed, supplies, and medicines for the “farm animals” that they are in the
business of raising for meat, fur, skins, food products (e.g., milk, eggs), or for breeding purposes. Such 

a business may use a Farmer’s Exemption Certificate (Form ST-7) or the Streamlined Sales and Use
Tax Agreement Certificate of Exemption (Form ST-SST) and not pay Sales Tax when purchasing
these items.
Veterinarians, however, may not issue an ST-7 exemption certificate, even if they are purchasing
medicines and supplies used only in the treatment of “farm animals.” Veterinarians must pay tax on the
purchase of medicines and supplies used in treating animals.
A business that breeds or raises horses for sale is considered an agricultural enterprise for Sales Tax
purposes. Agricultural enterprises in the business of breeding and raising horses for sale are exempt
from Sales Tax on the charges for boarding a stud or brood mare for breeding purposes. When
purchasing this service, the business may use Form ST-7 and not pay Sales Tax. However, a business
that boards or trains horses, rents horses for riding, or keeps horses for the business owner’s
enjoyment is not an agricultural enterprise for Sales and Use Tax purposes and may not use Form ST-7.

Use Tax:

When veterinarians purchase office equipment, supplies, or other taxable items from sellers that do not
collect New Jersey Sales Tax, they may have to pay New Jersey Use Tax on those purchases. Use Tax is
calculated at the same rate as Sales Tax on the price paid for all such items. In general, Use Tax is
reported and paid on the New Jersey Sales and Use Tax returns (Forms ST-50 and ST-51). However,
certain nonseller businesses (businesses that never sell taxable merchandise such as medicines, animal
feed, or grooming supplies, or taxable services such as grooming), if qualified, are authorized to report
and pay Use Tax using the Annual Business Use Tax Return (Form ST-18B). For more information on
filing Forms ST-50, ST-51 and ST-18B, see Tax Topic Bulletin S&U-7, Filing Sales and Use Tax Returns.
For more information on Use Tax, see publication ANJ-7, Use Tax in New Jersey.

For More Information:

Contact the Division’s Customer Service Center at 609-292-6400 or email us. Many State tax forms and
publications are available on our website.

Posted Sept 10, 2018

Up Date on Paid Sick Leave for NJ Employees.

To view full article click here.

Paid Sick Leave

Posted Aug 1 2018

Veterinary Business Advisors, Inc.
To: NJVHMA Members
From: Kellie Olah, PHR, SHRM-CP
Date: May 22, 2018
On May 2, 2018, New Jersey became the tenth state to enact legislation to make it mandatory for
employers to provide paid sick leave to its employees (regardless of number of hours worked).
This policy had already been put into place in multiple locales throughout New Jersey but will
now become state-wide.


When does the policy go into effect?

This policy will go into effect on October 29, 2018.

Who is covered?

Employees: The act applies to most employees working in the state "for compensation”.
Employers: The act broadly applies to any business entity, irrespective of size, that employs
employees in the state of New Jersey, including temporary help.

How much sick leave are employers required to give?

The law requires employers to provide one (1) hour of paid sick leave for every thirty (30) hours
worked capping this benefit at forty (40) hours.

Do you have to allow employees to carry the time over?

Employers are required to allow employees to carry over up to 40 hours of paid leave. However,
employers may include restrictions that do not allow employees to accrue more than 40 hours
nor use more than 40 hours in an employment year. An employer may pay the employee out for
accrued but unused days, only if the employee agrees to the arrangement. 

What can the time be used for?

    Diagnosis, care, treatment of, or recovery from, a mental or physical illness, injury or
other adverse health conditions, or for preventative medical care of the employee
    Caring for a family member during diagnosis, care, treatment of, or recovery from, a
mental or physical illness, injury or other adverse health conditions, or for preventative
medical care of the employee’s family member
    Absence(s) necessary due to the employee or employee’s family member being a victim
of domestic or sexual violence, if the earned sick leave is used for: medical attention
needed to recover from physical or psychological injury or disability caused by domestic
or sexual violence; services from a designated domestic violence agency or other victim
services organization; psychological or other counseling; relocation; other legal services,
including obtaining a restraining order or preparing for, or participating in, any civil or
criminal legal proceeding related to the domestic violence or sexual violence
    Time needed after the closure of the employee’s workplace or the school/place of care of
the employee’s child by order of a public official or other public health emergency, or if a
public health authority issues a determination that the presence of the employee or their
family member would jeopardize the health of others
    Attending a school-related function of the employee’s child requested or required by the
school responsible for the child’s education, or attending a meeting concerning the care
provided to the child in connection with the child’s health conditions or disability

Does the employer have to pay out the employee upon termination?

No. Employers do not need to pay out any unused sick leave as cash upon termination.
Employees must have their unused accrued hours reinstated if they are rehired within six

Are there any documentation or posting requirements?

Employers must track and document sick time earned and used. Employers must keep the
records for a period of at least FIVE years. Employers must also post a notification in the
workplace and provide individual notice to each employee within 30 days after the Department
of Labor issues the notification and, thereafter, at the time of each employee’s hiring. Finally, it is
encouraged that all employers update their Employee Manual or Hospital Policies to reflect the
change in law.


Posted May 2018

Team Member Discount:

Veterinary practice team members traditionally have received a significant discount for services rendered to their pets. In the author’s experience, most practices offer a 100% discount for services and charge either cost, or cost plus 10% in some cases, for inventoried items. Practices can determine the discount provided to their team members; however, even though discounts are a popular benefit, practice management must follow regulations set by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), or both owners/managers and team members may face hefty fines.  More information click here.

Posted Jan 11, 2018

Veterinary Practices Posting Pet Pictures on Social Media, written by VBA, May 17, 2017

Click here for info.

Posted Nov 30, 2018

The Holidays

Reducing Liability Around Holiday Parties

Tis the season for employees to eat, drink, and act inappropriately at holiday parties. Holiday parties can help motivate employees and serve as a thank you for their hard work all year; however, we often see bad behavior by employees. Depending on the circumstances, your company may find itself potentially liable for an employee’s inappropriate or unlawful actions at your company sponsored party. You can help minimize the risks associated with holiday parties by planning and following some useful tips.

1. Avoid or Limit Alcohol

After serving alcohol at a company sponsored event, there is the possibility that an employer could end up liable for injuries or damages caused by an inebriated employee. There are the risks of someone getting hurt or driving under the influence and there are also serious concerns if an employee’s behavior crosses the line from embarrassing to unlawful such as sexual harassment or violence. If you do serve alcohol at the party, you can take steps to limit alcohol consumption. You can provide drink tickets to employees, close the bar well before the party ends, serve plenty of food and non-alcoholic beverages, and use professional bartenders and staff who can keep their eyes open for obviously drunk employees. You can also designate some managers to refrain from drinking alcohol to make sure things do not get out of hand.

2. Keep Harassing Behavior in Check

Make sure that your sexual harassment policy is up-to-date and that it applies to company sponsored events, even if held off company property. Consider making the event a family party where employees may bring their spouse or a significant other as the presence of family members often deters inappropriate behavior which could give rise to a harassment complaint. Ask your managers to watch for potentially harassing conduct and to intervene as necessary.

3. Respect Religious Differences by Keeping Your Party Neutral

Avoid giving the impression that you are favoring one religious group over another by sticking with the neutral Holiday Party name and using non-religious decorations. Be sure that the timing of the party does not exclude any employees for religious reasons.

4. Avoid Employee Gift Exchanges

Gift exchanges between employees may have potential issues. Employees may not be able to afford to participate, even within a recommended cost guideline. Some employees may give sexy or what they feel are funny gifts that end up offending others. The best practice could be to avoid a company sponsored gift exchange altogether.

5. Remember Wage and Hour Laws

If you assign any non-exempt employees to plan, prepare for, and work at the party, their hours are likely work hours for which they must be paid. Clearly convey to all employees that attendance at the party is optional and clarify that employees will not be compensated for attending the party, especially if the party is on company property after hours.

6. Address Any Problems

Even if you follow every piece of advice here, and from other sources, issues may still arise. If you receive a complaint from an employee related to the party, make sure to respond to it and perform a thorough investigation, just as you would for complaints that occur during normal working hours.

Posted June 15, 2017:

Prescriptions and Pharmacies: For Pet Owners (FAQ)

Below are answers to the most common questions we receive at the AVMA about veterinary prescriptions and pharmacies.

Q: Why do I need a prescription?

A: When you are given a prescription for a medication for your pet, it means that your veterinarian has made a decision that the medication is recommended or necessary to treat your pet's health problem. Many prescription drugs are only effective for specific problems, and may actually be harmful to your pet if used without that critical veterinary examination and diagnosis. Having these drugs available as prescription-only medications ensures that they are used appropriately.

Let's take heartworm preventives as an example. Heartworm preventives are labeled as "prescription-only" because it's critical that your veterinarian makes sure the medication is the right one based on your pet's health status. The preventives target the infective larvae as they are migrating through the tissue prior to reaching the bloodstream and developing to adult heartworms. If your dog (or cat) has heartworms, giving a preventive medication will not effectively treat the disease because the preventives don't readily kill adult heartworms. In some cases, administering preventives to heartworm positive dogs can cause a rapid kill of circulating microfilariae, leading to a life-threatening anaphylactic reaction.

There are drugs, called "over the counter" (OTC) drugs, that don't require prescriptions. Drugs can be bought OTC when the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) determines that the directions for the drug's use aren't overly complicated and are adequate for the public to follow. In some cases, such as the common headache medications for people, the OTC version is just a weaker strength than the prescription form. However, in many cases, a medication is only available with a prescription for the reasons we mention above.

Q: What's the difference between the brand name, trade name and generic name of a medication?

A: Brand names and trade names are also called proprietary names, and are just what they sound like – they are the trademarked names you recognize on the shelves and see in advertisements. The generic name, on the other hand, is the nonproprietary name of the drug and is the same for all versions (brand-name and otherwise) of that drug. For example, take ibuprofen: there are several brand names for the drug, including Motrin® and Advil®, but the generic name of the drug is ibuprofen. If you were to buy the brand/trade name of the drug (for yourself, not your pet), you'd purchase Motrin® or Advil®, but if you were to buy the generic version, it would just be labeled "ibuprofen."

Q: Is there a difference between the brand name version and the generic version of a medication?

A: For the most part, no. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) sets the standards for the quality, purity, strength and consistency of all prescription and OTC medications in the U.S. – the goal is to make sure that the product you purchase meets these standards. If you look closely at the drug labels, you'll see "USP" printed after the drug name in the ingredients list – and sometimes it's printed clearly on the front label of the bottle/box. Based on USP standards, for example, generic ibuprofen is the same drug as the brand name-versions of ibuprofen (of the same strength) as far as the quality, purity, and consistency are concerned.

However, we have heard some anecdotal and unconfirmed reports of pets that had been receiving a brand name medication, but did not do as well when given a generic version of the same medication. Although all USP versions of a drug meet the purity standards for that drug, all of the ingredients and the processes involved in making the trade name versions are often protected by patent or other intellectual property laws, and there may be differences in the minor ingredients that could produce slightly different results between the versions, while still providing the main drug that meets USP standards. Think of it as following a recipe – even if you have the same ingredients and follow the instructions, the end result might vary a little bit. This is not a common problem with medications, and is often resolved by switching back to the effective version of the medication.

Q: Why are some spot-on flea and tick preventive medications only available through my veterinarian?

A: Some manufacturers have decided to sell their products only through veterinarians so that the veterinarian and pet owner can discuss the situation and work together to determine the best flea and tick treatment for that pet. It's not that the product is "prescription-only" – it's that the manufacturer believes the product should only be sold through veterinarians. In addition, it seems more likely that the product will be used properly (for example, a cat won't be treated with a product labeled only for use in dogs) if the veterinarian is supplying the medication and is counseling the pet owner on the proper use of the medication.

If the spot-on flea and tick product is also labeled for heartworm prevention, it is only available through your veterinarian for the reason we previously described – it is critical that your veterinarian checks for a heartworm infection before your pet is given a heartworm preventive medication.

Q: My veterinarian gave me a prescription for a pain reliever for my pet. Why can't I just buy one of the over-the-counter pain relievers at my local drug store?

A: Don't do it! Although these products are approved for use in people, many of them are not safe for pets. For example, acetaminophen (Tylenol® is the most common example) can cause severe illness, and even death, in pets. Talk to your veterinarian before you give ANY medication to your pet.

Q: Where can I get my pet's prescriptions filled?

A: You have several options when your pet needs a prescription medication:

  • You can get it from your veterinarian if they keep it in stock;
  • Your veterinarian can write (or call in) a prescription to a local pharmacy that stocks the medication;
  • Or your veterinarian can provide a prescription so you can get the medication from an online pharmacy.

Q: Can I get my pet's prescription medications from Canada?

A: No. Drugs from Canada are not approved by the federal government for use in the United States. It is illegal for you to get medications shipped from Canada for yourself or your pet.

Q: The pharmacy told me I don't need a prescription for a medication. Is that true?

A: For some OTC medications, it is true. However, if your veterinarian tells you that you need a prescription for the medication but the pharmacy tells you that you don't need it, this might indicate that the pharmacy's staff is either confused or misinformed, or the pharmacy's ethics and standards are questionable. If this happens, talk to your veterinarian, contact the state board of pharmacy, or contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA CVM)

Q: Why should I consider getting my pet's medications from my veterinarian?

A: There are several reasons you should consider getting your pet's medications from your veterinarian:

  • If your veterinarian has the medication in stock, you immediately have it and you don't have to wait to get it from a pharmacy;
  • Your veterinarian or a veterinary technician can answer your questions, provide you with instructions for use, and maybe even demonstrate how to give your pet the medication;
  • If you order from a pharmacy and the medication isn't properly shipped (for example, it is allowed to get too hot or too cold) or isn't properly packaged, it could be ineffective or damaged and unusable; whereas if you get it from your veterinarian, you know it has been properly handled until it reaches you and they can inform you how to make sure you handle the medication properly.

Q: If I choose to get my pet's prescriptions filled elsewhere, can my veterinarian refuse to give me a prescription?

A: Your veterinarian might strongly recommend that you get the medication directly from them, but some states actually require veterinarians to write prescriptions for clients to have filled elsewhere if requested by the client. Some states do not require this of veterinarians.

There are certainly situations where it is in your pet's best interest to get the medication directly from your veterinarian, and we encourage you to discuss your options with your veterinarian. The AVMA's Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics recommends that veterinarians comply with their client's wishes and provide written prescriptions if the client prefers having the prescription filled elsewhere.

Q: Can my veterinarian charge me a fee for writing a prescription for my pet?

A: There is no federal law preventing your veterinarian from charging you a fee for their services and time invested in writing a prescription. Some veterinarians charge a nominal fee for writing prescriptions, but others don't. Individual states might have specific guidance for veterinarians on prescription fees.

Q: My veterinarian is telling me that I have to bring my pet in for an examination before they'll write a prescription or authorize a refill. Why?

A: According to the AVMA Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics, it is unethical, and in most states, unlawful, for a veterinarian to write a prescription or dispense a prescription drug outside a Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR). For more information about the VCPR, including a definition, see Section III of the AVMA's Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics. For a simpler explanation of the VCPR, read our "Frequently Asked Questions by Pet Owners about the Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship."

In order to maintain a VCPR, your veterinarian must see your pet regularly – how regularly they need to see your pet depends on your pet's health. If your pet is on a prescription medicine, your veterinarian may need to reexamine your pet, check blood work, or perform other tests to monitor your pet's response to treatment and determine if the medication needs to be changed. For example, a dog being treated for hypothyroidism needs to be reevaluated regularly to make sure the dosage is having the effect it needs to have.

Q: If I choose to get my pet's prescription filled elsewhere, will my veterinarian refuse to see my pet anymore?

A: That's not likely. We encourage you to talk to your veterinarian about your concerns and discuss what's best for your pet.

Q: Why do some medications cost more from my veterinarian than from an online store?

A: Online pharmacies may buy larger volumes of the medications at a time, so they may get bulk pricing that might be lower (or much lower) than your veterinarian pays - so, even with a markup, some medications from an online source are being sold to you for less than your veterinarian pays to get the medication. Anybody who keeps medications in stock has to mark up the prices above what they paid because of the overhead costs involved in keeping those medications on the shelf and the losses if the medication expires and has to be discarded.

Q: What are the risks of ordering from an online pharmacy?

A: The amount of risk depends on the quality of the pharmacy. Human error is a risk with any source, but the risk is minimal if the proper procedures are in place.

When you order from an online pharmacy, the product must be shipped to you. If the medication isn't properly shipped (for example, it is allowed to get too hot or too cold) or isn't properly packaged, it could be ineffective or damaged and unusable.

If there is a problem with the medication received from an online pharmacy, there might be a period of time when your pet isn't getting its medication while you wait for the replacement medication to arrive.

Q: How do I know the pharmacy is trustworthy?

A: Prior experience with a pharmacy is a good indication – ask your veterinarian if there is a pharmacy they recommend. You can also inquire with the state board of pharmacy to determine whether a pharmacy is licensed within the state and the status of the pharmacy's license.

In addition, accreditation by independent bodies can give you more information about an online pharmacy. Two examples of third-party accreditation include the National Association Boards of Pharmacy Vet-VIPPS program and, for compounding pharmacies, the Pharmacy Compounding Accreditation Board. (Your prescription might be called in to a compounding pharmacy if your pet needs a medication tailored just for him or her – an example would be a flavored liquid medication for a cat who otherwise won't take the medication. It is NOT legal, however, to have a compounding pharmacy make a "cheaper" version of an identical product that has been approved by the FDA.)

Q: How will I know if there are problems with the medications I get from a pharmacy?

A: First of all, talk to your veterinarian about the signs of a problem with the medication. Make sure you know what to look for, and what to do if you see it. Don't hesitate to contact your veterinarian if you are concerned that your pet is having a problem with or a reaction to the medication.

If you receive a shipped medication and the package is damaged or it appears to have been allowed to get too hot or too cold, contact the pharmacy immediately and notify them of the problem. If you are not sure if the medication is safe to use in that condition, contact your veterinarian.

If you have concerns or complaints about a pharmacy's practices or the quality of its products, you can report the pharmacy to your state board of pharmacy.

Q: My veterinarian said that my pet needs to get a different dose than what the drug package insert says. Is this legal?

A: If your veterinarian thinks the labeled dose isn't right for your pet but a different dose is what your pet needs, this is a federally regulated activity called "extralabel drug use." Basically, if the medication is used in any other way than the label dictates, this is extralabel use, and it is legal as long as your veterinarian follows the regulations. Your veterinarian can also prescribe a human medication for your pet, and this is also considered extralabel use.

Please note that we're only talking about extralabel drug use in pets here. Extralabel use is legal in food-producing animals, but the rules are much more strict.

This FAQ was produced by the AVMA Scientific Activities and Communications Divisions, with assistance from the Council on Biologic and Therapeutic Agents and the Clinical Practitioners Advisory Committee.

Additional resources:

US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Asking For Client Feedback By Jessica Goodman Lee, CVPM Brakke Consulting, Inc. February 14, 2012

Historically, veterinarians have been extremely passive when it comes to soliciting client feedback; only 20% of veterinarians surveyed agreed that they solicit client feedback through after-service questionnaires.1 Yet the most successful veterinary practices realize that to keep customers coming back, they have to ensure that their services are being provided consistently and successfully. In short, we tend to run our practices based on the assumption that no news is good news. When we do hear from clients, it is more often than not when something has gone very wrong, and unless this is a frequent occurrence, we tend not to give these complaints much credence. According to studies done by the Technical Assistance Research Programs (TARP), though, for every irritated customer who complains, 26 do not, although they still have grievances, and 6 of them have serious problems2. The reality is that you probably don’t know how many dissatisfied patients you have because most people don’t complain in person. While passive about soliciting feedback, veterinarians still feel very strongly about the client experience. According to the 2011 Bayer Veterinary Care Usage Study, 81% of veterinarians surveyed indicated that they would change how their practice operated if they knew it would increase client satisfaction3. These numbers highlight the dichotomy between the desire to do something and the reality of actually making it happen. Perhaps veterinarians don’t request customer feedback because they fear criticism or the work it will take to implement change. However, it is far more expensive to attract new clients than it is to retain current ones. Consider the time and money spent on marketing initiatives to acquire new clients, all of which could potentially be worthless if they do not return based on a less than stellar experience. Add to that the increased value of client-to-client referrals, and it is obvious that allowing ego or fear of change to get in the way of soliciting feedback can be highly detrimental to the long-term health of a practice. Soliciting client feedback is as much about finding out what you are doing right, as it is about what needs to be improved upon. The most important thing about positive feedback is that it should be openly shared with the entire team as frequently as possible. When clients take the time to tell you how you’ve exceeded their expectations, or if you consistently earn top-rated scores, the entire team should celebrate and receive praise for a job well done. Acknowledging and thanking staff for jobs well done can be accomplished by: • posting positive comments where they can be read by the whole team • congratulating and rewarding by name those recognized individuals The methods above can be a powerful incentive for others to rise to the occasion and increase their level of performance. There’s not much that makes an employee feel more appreciated than being recognized for outstanding service, especially in front of peers and co-workers. Types of Client Questionnaires It is critical to be pro-active in seeking client feedback, which means your survey cannot just sit on your website waiting for someone to find it and take the time to complete it. See sample client surveys Using Email… Email is definitely the most successful method of distribution (just one more reason to collect email addresses if you aren’t already doing so!); not only can email be delivered more quickly than stamped mail, but it has a greater chance of being opened and completed in one step, and timeliness is very important both in reaching the client and obtaining their response. …For New Clients The most obvious purpose of questionnaires is to ensure a stellar new client experience, which is why it is beneficial that these surveys be sent within 24 hours of the patient visit. This promptness allows the opportunity to evaluate and fix any problems that are brought to your attention before they affect others. It also decreases the time that an unhappy client will have to turn to the Internet as a way to broadcast their dissatisfaction. Often just the fact that you made the effort to follow-up and took the time to listen can turn a not so happy customer into a raving fan. Even if they have no intention of giving you a second chance, the fact that someone reached out directly is often enough to keep their need to go public with their opinion to a minimum, thus halting the damage to a practice’s reputation. …For Current Clients As important as new business is, it is just as important to gauge the satisfaction level of current clients on a regular basis. This can be done all at once on an annual or semi-annual basis, or an appointment can trigger that a survey be sent. These surveys are also a great way to ask clients whether or not they would be interested in a new service or product before making any type of investment, financial or otherwise. For example: In an effort to better meet the needs of cat owners, a practice might consider reserving a certain day of the week for cat-only appointments. The best way to anticipate the success of such a program would be to actually ask cat owning clients if this would truly encourage them to bring their cats in more often. …For Clients “Missing In Action” Another group that is important to survey is clients that have not been seen in at least a year. While the response rate will most likely be low, those that complete the questionnaire present an opportunity to regain their business. If someone provides a reason for not returning to your practice, and you are confident that this issue has been resolved, take the initiative to let them know and offer them an incentive to see for themselves! Types of Questions When it comes to questionnaires, the key is to ask enough questions to get “useful” feedback, but not so many that it becomes arduous to complete.

Four Rules to Client Questionnaires:

1. If it takes more than 5-10 minutes, it’s too long

2. Make most of the questions simple (with multiple choice answers)

3. Include questions specific to your practice’s protocols

4. Ask new clients if they remember the veterinarian they saw Lastly, before concluding a questionnaire it can be useful to ask for an overall experience rating based on a numerical scale (1-10 being most common). Don’t hesitate to be direct—go ahead and ask new clients whether or not they intend to return to your practice.

The statement that “knowledge is power” is as true in business as it is elsewhere. The more information you have, from as many sources as possible, the more impactful and accurate the decisions regarding the future direction of your practice. Share and celebrate the good, and use whatever criticism is offered as a means to improve and grow. Doing this regularly provides the best opportunity to build a loyal fan base and decreases the chances of your practice becoming a victim of outside social and economic forces. So go ahead…ask away!


By: Amanda L. Donnelly, DVM, MBA
Practice managers are supposed to be effective at human resource management or in other words-keep the staff happy and keep owners out of trouble with any regulatory organizations. In addition, managers are expected to ensure client satisfaction, resolve client complaints, keep the business running smoothly, keep the schedule hopping, contribute to marketing initiatives, control expenses, and be the owner’s go-to person for any number of other issues or concerns. On any given day, the manager’s agenda is likely to be derailed by someone or something that requires attention. Being an effective practice manager is challenging but there are specific actions that will help ensure your success. Take the following steps to increase your job satisfaction and enhance your job performance.

Define Your Job Roles and Expectations

Establish reasonable and agreed upon job duties and expectations for your position. This starts by having a written job description that outlines major areas of responsibility. There are multiple resources for writing a job description including AAHA, VHMA and veterinary consultants. Generic job descriptions are a good starting point but need to be edited to tailor them for your specific practice. Next, meet with practice owners to define specific job expectations and areas of accountability for job performance. For example, if the job description states one of the duties as “Maintain major practice expense categories within target goals” the owner(s) and manager need to agree on appropriate expectations and action steps for the manager to fulfill this job responsibility. Otherwise, the job description is only words on paper, the manager may or may not be accountable for controlling expenses, and there is no plan and timeline in place to respond to increases in expense categories if they occur. Once job roles and expectations are defined, communication is enhanced because owners and managers are clear about what duties are to be fulfilled by the manager.

Clarify Goals and Priorities

Clarify goals and action plans to meet the goals. For example, if one of the hospital goals is to grow the business by 10% and marketing plans have been drafted to meet this goal, then the manager knows what the owners want and has a roadmap to achieve success. Since managers have to juggle multiple job responsibilities, it is imperative to define and agree upon the priority for job tasks. Otherwise, managers may risk owners assuming they will get everything done that they request in a short period of time which may be unrealistic. To avoid miscommunication and the perception of ineffective job performance, it is incumbent upon managers to let owners know when they have too many job duties to complete in a reasonable time period. Managers need to ask owners which duties to prioritize first rather than assuming they know what the owners want or what they think is best. Moreover, setting timelines for completion of tasks helps everyone on the leadership team have the same expectations and knowledge regarding the manager’s job duties.

Manage Your Time Wisely

If time management is a problem for you, read one or two books to gather information and practical tips to help you become more organized. Talk to other practice managers in similar practices to see how they have conquered their time management challenges. The list serve or discussion forums for the Veterinary Hospital Manager’s Association (VHMA) or the Veterinary Emergency & Specialty Practice Association (VESPA) are excellent resources to ask questions and connect with colleagues. Most managers find it works best to set aside specific hours or time slots for employees to come to their office with questions or concerns. Obviously, emergency situations or serious concerns must be addressed as needed but having set hours for employees eliminates being interrupted by an employee that wants to talk about something that isn’t time sensitive. When working on important projects or activities close your door and strive to maintain focus for a defined period of time such as one to three hours. Ask the front office not to interrupt you with phone calls if they are not critical and avoid the temptation of checking email which can be distracting and time consuming.

Provide Effective Leadership

One of the critical roles of leaders is to make sure the team knows the mission, vision and core values of the organization. If your practice doesn’t have a written mission or vision and core values, work with the practice owners to develop these guiding statements so the team knows where they’re going and how they’re going to get there. Build trust with employees by sharing information and being true to your word. Keep team members informed about business activities that may affect their job and follow through on
promised actions. For example, if you tell an employee you will consider a change in their work schedule or send them to a continuing education seminar, you need to stick to your promise. Otherwise, staff begins to adopt an attitude of thinking management doesn’t care or take action on employee issues and morale may suffer. Being a great leader doesn’t necessarily come naturally to everyone. But leadership skills can be learned. Part of being an effective manager is taking the time to learn more about positive leadership and devoting time to honing your leadership skills.

Learn the Art of Managing Up

Managing up refers to the ability to work effectively with your boss to achieve the best results for you, them and the organization. Managing up is really all about creating win-win work relationships so you can be effective and help drive the success of the practice. The art of managing up involves improving communication with owners and understanding their management or leadership style. Be sure to schedule weekly leadership meetings to enhance communication and feedback. Weekly meetings ensure managers have the tools and information to do their jobs and avoid the need for marathon sessions which tend to occur when practice issues are not addressed on a weekly basis. Managers need to let owners know if they require any resources to do their job effectively and they need to give owners relevant feedback about management issues. Remember also that those sticky management problems, many of which may directly involve the owner and their actions, won’t go away just because you don’t talk about them. When problems arise, tackle them head on by letting the owners know how their actions or specific situations have an effect on your job performance. For example, if you work for an owner that undermines your authority, diplomatically let them know how their actions result in negative consequences for the business.

Enhance Staff Productivity with Feedback

Feedback helps you work better with your team because employees appreciate knowing how they are doing and how they can improve. Don’t forget to solicit feedback from staff as well which further assists in efforts to improve hospital operations. Take the following steps to establish effective feedback protocols. Communicate clearly: Sometimes inefficiency or lack of accountability exists because managers are unclear when communicating with staff about their job performance or when delegating job tasks. Communicate and clarify expectations to employees in a direct, straightforward manner. Be sure to assess for understanding from employees. Ask them if they have any questions about their assigned job tasks. Don’t forget to give employees deadlines when delegating job tasks. Rather than asking an employee “Can you please file these records and enter these invoices?”
instead say “I need these records filed and the invoices entered by the end of your shift. Can you complete this job task by 5pm?” Know when and how to deliver feedback: Feedback is more meaningful when it is specific and timely. Rather than saying “Thanks for doing a good job” or “We need for you to do a better job”, give specific feedback about what behavior you want to continue and/or what behavior is unacceptable. While it may seem nit-picky, not everyone has the same definition of what is an “exceptional, good or poor” job performance, what is “on-time” or what is “clean”. Be aware of appropriate times and places to give feedback. Follow the old adage, “praise in public and criticize in private”. Focus on the behavior not the person: Focus on employees’ behavior not on intangibles such as their attitude or intention. We cannot measure, quantify or see an employee’s attitude or intention. We can witness behavior and actions. Rather than telling an employee they need to have a better attitude or they need to be more efficient checking in clients, tell them specifically what words or actions demonstrate their poor attitude or poor job performance. When you focus feedback on specific behavior and actions, employees will know what they need to do differently as well as what they need to continue doing well. Relate job duties to the practice’s vision and core values: Everyone’s job role in the practice has a purpose and helps to further the vision of the business. Employees benefit from understanding how their individual job roles and assignments fit into the “big picture” or vision of the practice and how they help to achieve business goals. Additionally, how you want team members to act and do their job tasks relates to the practice’s core values. Remind employees that their actions need to be consistent with your core values.

Coach Your Team to Problem-solve

If you feel like you get mired down dealing with inefficiency or fixing problems brought to you by team members then you may need to do a better job coaching your employees to be problem-solvers. One of the biggest drains on practice efficiency occurs when team members have to seek out supervisors for assistance or approval before taking action. Assess the problem-solving capabilities of your team. Do some of your employees continually come to you seeking approval or direction before they take action? Could they have been trained to make the appropriate decisions or solve problems on their own? Answering these questions is critical if you want to maximize the efficiency of operations and promote teamwork. Employees often need to be coached to make good decisions and become problem-solvers. Encourage staff to propose possible solutions for how they think a problem should be handled rather than just asking how they should proceed. In time, employees will learn to present one or more possible solutions when they come to you with problems and will feel comfortable making decisions on their own about minor variations in daily operations. With proper coaching, many issues that previously had to be resolved by managers or doctors will be taken care of by the staff.

Amanda L. Donnelly, DVM, MBA ALD Veterinary Consulting, Rockledge, FL


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